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Present participle or past participle phrase usage

What is the different between the following sentences:

The box containing the paper is for Kevin.
The box contained the paper is for Kevin.

I read some articles explaining the use of participle phrases but I am not sure when to use ing or ed, can someone clarify? is both means the same?

Thank you

Re: Present participle or past participle phrase usage

Sentence (2) is not correct.

See if this helps, and then come back with any further questions you have about this.

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/quick-grammar/participle-clauses

Re: Present participle or past participle phrase usage

Thanks, but sorry. I am still confused.

1. I opened the box containing the paper.
2. I opened the box contained the paper.

is #2 still wrong?

ing is in active voice = the box contains the paper.
ed is in passive = the paper was contained in the box??

Re: Present participle or past participle phrase usage

Yes, it is still wrong, and it is not passive voice. The passive version of your first example would be:

(1) "The box containing the paper was opened by me".

Most passives require the verb "be" + past participle, as in (1), but your second example is active, not passive since there is no verb "be" present. It is also ungrammatical because in the active voice, "box" requires either a present participial clause or a relative clause:

(2) "I opened the box containing the paper".
(3) "I opened the box which contained the paper".

In (2) and (3) the underlined clauses are modifying "box". The first is present-participial clause, and the second a relative clause.

Jason, may I ask you a question? Are you a native speaker of English, or are you learning it as a second or foreign language?





PaulM

Re: Present participle or past participle phrase usage

Thanks Paul. I am an ESL student . I am trying to understand when to use present participle and past participle as an adjective phrase to describe a noun.

Example 1: Employees are required to follow the protocols outlined in this manual.
I believe "outlined in this manual" is a past participle phrase?

Example 2: Employees are required to follow the protocols, outlining in this manual.
I believe "outlining in this manual" is a present participle phrase?


After reading your comment, I would rewrite the sentence:

Example 3: Employees are required to follow the protocols which outlined in this manual.

Example 4: Employees are required to follow the protocols, outlining in this manual.

Are those correct? If so, what is the difference?

Re: Present participle or past participle phrase usage

Quote: Jason

Example 1: Employees are required to follow the protocols outlined in this manual.
I believe "outlined in this manual" is a past participle phrase?

PM: Yes, this is correct, but it's a clause, not a phrase.

Quote:
Example 2: Employees are required to follow the protocols outlining in this manual.
I believe "outlining in this manual" is a present participle phrase?

PM: No, this is incorrect. It should be a past participle verb, not a present participle one. Your Example 1 is correct.

Quote:
After reading your comment, I would rewrite the sentence:

Example 3: Employees are required to follow the protocols which outlined in this manual.

Example 4: Employees are required to follow the protocols, outlining in this manual.

Are those correct? If so, what is the difference?

PM: No, they are both wrong:

Example 3 should be: "Employees are required to follow the protocols which are outlined in this manual".

And example 4 is the same as example 2. which is wrong for the reason I gave.



PaulM